Texas won independence from Mexico in 1836 and the Republic was recognized by the United States and the European powers.
Mexico never accepted Texas independence, however, insisting that there was a state of war between it and its “rebellious province.” The Mexicans even made a few raids as far as San Antonio, but they failed to recapture Texas. There was also a border disagreement between the Texans and the Mexicans. The Mexicans recognized only some of the area as part of the Texas state. Texas claimed a much larger area that extended to the Rio Grande, and far to the north. The Texas congress passed a law officially asserting its claim to the larger area.
Texas seriously lacked money during its nine years of independence.
The French and the British kept interfering as they tried to stop American expansion towards the Pacific. The British offered the Republic of Texas financial aid.
The Mexicans promised to recognize Texas’ independence if Texas promised never to join the United States.
In the United States, the Whigs and abolitionists were afraid annexation would mean war with Mexico. They did not want another slave state.
Opposition to annexation defeated U.S. Congress’s first attempt to bring Texas into the union.
By annexing Texas, U.S. President Polk angered Mexico, which broke off diplomatic relations. Mexico declared that the United States had seized “a portion of territory which belongs to Mexico by a right which she will maintain at whatever cost.”
Source: How We Got Texas
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