The continents of Europe and Asia form the Eurasian landmass. Europe sticks out from the western end of this landmass. It looks like a giant peninsula. Inside Europe are other peninsulas like the Balkan Peninsula, the Iberian Peninsula, the Italian Peninsula, and the Scandinavian Peninsula. Europe has a nickname: the peninsula of peninsulas. Europe is both a continent and a region.
Europe is the home to the Alps, a high mountain range, which formed a natural barrier. Europe borders several seas, including the Mediterranean and the Baltic. There are many waterways, including major rivers like the Danube and the Rhine, which allowed for easy trade and irrigation. The central part of Europe is rich with forests, which provided building supplies of wood and bark. Between its natural boundaries, beautiful waterways, ample building supplies, and a varied food supply, many early tribes chose to settle down and raise a family in Europe.
Europe is broken up into four large geographic regions: Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe. People once also referred to a region called Central Europe. Another way to refer to the regions of Europe is by its major landforms: the Baltic Region, the Alpine Region, the Danube Region, the Mediterranean Region, and the Scandinavian Region.
Source: Medieval Europe Geography and Maps
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