A large number of ethnicities have inhabited Mongolia since prehistoric times.
In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, the largest empire in history. After his death, the Mongol Empire was subdivided into four kingdoms. In 1271, Kublai Khan formally established the Yuan Dynasty, which was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China. It was overthrown by the Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368.
Mongolia was ruled by the Qing Dynasty until 1911. Mongolia declared its independence in 1911 under the Bogd Khan, the spiritual leader of Mongolia’s Tibetan Buddhism. However, the Chinese government still claimed “Outer Mongolia” and invaded the country in 1919.
In 1921, the People’s Revolution won in Mongolia with the help of the Russian Red Army, and Mongolia became the second socialist country in the world. Mongolia was under a Soviet-dominated Communist regime until 1990. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, a democratic revolution came to Mongolia in 1990. The communist government was overthrown peacefully. Mongolia established a multi-party system, a new constitution, and a transition to a market economy.
Source: History of Mongolia
Courtesy of the Embassy of Mongolia to the United States