Islam in east Africa 8th - 11th century
Islam spread along trade routes, especially during the 11th century. A Muslim dynasty was established at Kilwa, (modern Tanzania). Kilwa became a prosperous sultanate, with an active trade in gold and slaves.
Islam in west Africa 8th - 11th century
Islam spread south along the Sahara trade routes. By the 10th century many merchants had converted to Islam. The king of Ghana, the most powerful realm, accepted Islam in the 1070s. Across northern Africa from the Sudan to the Atlantic, the entire region remains mainly Muslim today.
Muslims from Ghazni 10th - 11th century
An aggressive Turkish dynasty gained power in Ghazni, southwest of Kabul. For over 33 years, they waged campaigns in the region around Peshawar, hoping to capture the riches of India. In 1025, a Ghazni general named Mahmud, inspired by religious zeal, ran raids into India, which had a Hindu cult of idolatry. Mahmud destroyed the great temple at Somnath, and 50,000 Hindus died. This was the first in a long series of fights between Muslims and Hindus. For the next five centuries, Muslim raiders pushed eastwards through the Punjab into India. The Moghuls became notable rulers in India.
Muslim Malaya and Indonesia from the 13th century
Indian merchants from Gujarat established Muslim settlements in northern Sumatra. Their wealth and sophistication won converts to Islam, and a Muslim sultanate was established in Malacca. The neighboring communities embraced Islam, which spread through the Malay peninsula. By the 17th century the Hindus were outcast from the region. The mainland regions from Burma to Cambodia converted to Buddhism. The island of Bali is today the only Hindu outpost in southeast Asia, which is mostly divided between Buddhism and Islam.
Three Muslim empires 16th - 18th century
The Muslim world shaped up as three powerful empires. In the west, the Ottoman Turkish empire had its capital in Istanbul. In Persia, the dynasty followed Shi'a doctrines. In the east, the Moghul empire served as a minority Muslim ruling class in India. For a century the three regions were stable and prosperous. During the 18th century, Persia experienced internal conflicts, European powers threatened the Ottoman and Moghul empires, the Russian empire threatened the Turkish sultans, and India became part of the British empire.
Source: History of Islam, page 3
Gascoigne, Bamber. HistoryWorld. From 2001, ongoing.