The First Amendment. Protects five of the most basic liberties. These were the guarantees that the Antifederalists missed most in the new Constitution:
The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms. Guarantees individual states the right to maintain "a well-regulated militia," and citizens the right to "keep and bear arms."
The Third Amendment: Housing Troops. Pledges that in peacetime, citizens will not have to keep soldiers in their homes without consent.
The Fourth Amendment: Searches and Seizure. The Fourth Amendment protects citizens from improper searches of their bodies, possessions, or homes.
The Fifth Amendment:
The Sixth Amendment: Fair and Speedy Trials. Provides more requirements for a fair trial in criminal cases. It guarantees a speedy, public trial by an impartial jury in the area where the crime was committed. The defendant must be able to question the accusers and to force favorable witnesses to testify. The accused has a right to a lawyer.
The Seventh Amendment: Jury Trials. Guarantees that Americans will receive a jury trial in civil (as opposed to criminal) cases involving property worth more than $20.
The Eighth Amendment: Bails, Fines, and Punishments. Protects people from having to pay unreasonably high bail to be released from prison before they go to trial.
The Ninth and Tenth Amendments: Reserved Powers. Addresses the liberties of citizens and the rights of states. The Ninth Amendment states that the Constitution and the Bill of Rights do not define all fundamental rights. Such rights exist even if not defined. The Tenth Amendment makes a similar claim concerning the rights of the states. It holds that the states and the people have "reserved powers."
Source: Explaining the Bill of Rights
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